How do Electric Vehicle Charging Stations Work?

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Electrical Vehicle Charging Stations are also known to the industry as EVSE (Electrical Vehicle Supply Equipment). There are different levels of charging, but when people refer to charging stations, they typically mean either level 2 or level 3 devices. Today, we will focus on Level 2 devices.

Electrical Vehicle Charging Stations are also known to the industry as EVSE (Electrical Vehicle Supply Equipment). There are different levels of charging, but when people refer to charging stations, they typically mean either level 2 or level 3 devices. Today, we will focus on Level 2 devices.

 

A level 2 EVSE is what is typically installed in front of a hotel or in a restaurant’s parking lot. They are relatively small boxes with a single or dual cord set hanging to their side and a small yet sophisticated display for access or billing purposes. The power level of these level 2 EVSE is the equivalent to that of a heavy dryer and runs on a similar power supply circuit.

 

The term “charger” for a level 2 EVSE is somewhat misleading because the actual electronic charging portion is situated on the vehicle itself. The EVSE serves as a gateway or a door opener. Utilities provide alternating current (AC) to every residency or building in the country. An electric vehicle’s (EV) onboard energy supply, however, is based on battery power. The battery’s chemical reaction produces plain direct current (DC). When a vehicle connects to an EVSE, an identification process is initialized and the proper connection to the vehicle is verified. After the secure connection is established, the charging station will inform the vehicle as to how much power can be safely drawn from this location. Once the vehicle has that information it will obtain AC power from the EVSE and convert it via its own onboard charger to DC which will then be fed to the battery. Depending on the size of the onboard charger, battery size, level of depletion, and the available power at the EVSE, this process may take a few hours. The EVSE’s gatekeeper functions also include a ground-fault check circuit that ensures the operator does not get electrocuted during the charge process. Often, when passing such an EVSE it cannot go unnoticed that the cables are hanging loosely next to the station or are coiled up on the dirty ground. All of that is exposed to the elements and is also affected by aging, and in some cases, by vandalism. Like a hair dryer which has an incorporated GFCI (Ground-Fault Circuit Interrupter), the EVSE incorporates a CCID5 or CCID20. These are Charge Current Interrupting Devices fulfilling a safety function much like a GFCI, should an electrically hazardous situation arise.

 

To summarize:

 

The level 2 EVSE is more of a gate keeper than a charger

The EVSE supplies AC power

The cars onboard DC charger converts AC to usable DC

The power flow goes as follows: Utility power AC -> EVSE (Gateway) (AC) -> EV connector (AC) -> Onboard charger (convert to DC) -> Battery

The EVSE provides intelligence, circuit monitoring, billing, access, etc.

Charge time usually several hours

The level 2 AC charger/gate keeper is an intermediate solution for home and business charging that can refill your battery in a matter of hours. It is not suited for a quick 10-20-minute top off.

 

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